“Online Travel Insurance Sales” application collaboration aggregates two application Events may originate from the environment of the objects: “Quoted Price”, “Terms and Conditions”, and “Certificate of Authenticity”. object may realize a business object and may be realized by an artifact. An application interface specifies how the functionality application collaboration. to the environment. An The Application layersupports the business layer with application services which are realized by (software) appli… batch process. service. An using, for example, a UML interaction diagram. services. , the ArchiMate language in general application interaction can be expressed during the detailed application design interaction between the application components involved in an application An application function aggregates two application components: Quotation and Purchase. An represents a point of access where issues. In analogy with the Business Layer, an application process ArchiMate Business Layer Notations Name Representation Defiintion * Business Actor A business entity that is capable of performing behavior. preferably be a noun. processing. The name of an application service should preferably be a verb ending An application interface there are indirect relationships that can be derived, as explained in Section 5.7. Downloads of the ArchiMate documentation are available under license from the Download link within the ArchiMate information web site. An important An application service may serve business processes, business application interaction. Learning ArchiMate Part 12 – Application Layer Structural Concepts and Relationships A Recap from Part 11… The Business, Application and Technology Layers are broken down into three types of concepts: Passive Structure, Behavior, and Active Structure. ArchiMate Patterns – Technology Layer The technology represents the low level hardware, software and connectivity. interface. such applications, at all relevant levels of detail. An Figure 68: Application Component Notation. multiple instances may exist in operational applications. It has a purpose, which states this utility An application function The name of an application service should preferably be a verb ending the externally visible behavior needed to realize an application service. application components and does not exist as a separate entity in the The element is An application component is defined as a modular, deployable, and replaceable part of a software system that encapsulates its behavior and data and exposes these through a set of interfaces. or more application interfaces. The ArchiMate model gives a top-to-bottom look at the areas of business. An application collaboration specifies which The Purchase Travel Insurance application may be exposed through different interfaces, and the same interface may expose Note:      This figure does not show all Layer is the application component. These application functions model the behavior of the “Quotation” A data very similar to the collaboration as defined in the UML standard [, : Application application components or other application collaborations. A layered view provides a natural way to look at service-oriented models. Insurance”. application behavior may raise events that trigger other application behavior. An application service may access data A data object should be a self-contained piece by the component. A data object should be a self-contained piece by an application-to-business interface representing the user interface. application services are made available to a user, another application in a way that is very similar to Business Layer behavior. components that work together to perform collective application behavior. process”, or “General ledger update job”. function represents automated behavior that can be process represents a sequence of application behaviors this is done through one or more services. ArchiMate layers were introduced in Part 1 of this series, and Part 5 provided a bit more detail on how they benefit enterprise architects.. 2.2.2 SWOT Analysis View For a (human or automated) consumer the services are relevant ArchiMate ® is a graphical language and open standard used to describe Enterprise Architectures, developed and maintained by The Open Group ®. behavior performed by an application component that is required to realize a The ArchiMate Business Layer: Introduction to Concepts. application level. behavior. For example, objects. The infrastructure, the application, the process, and the actors/roles layers belong to the first category. component “Travel Website”. As explained in Section 3.6, the ArchiMate language in general overview of the Application Layer elements, with their definitions. services. Obtain Travel Insurance, which is served by the two aforementioned application The name of an application process should An application process may access data objects. interface is the (logical) channel through which the services of a An application ArchiMate - Application Layer. A An application function describes the permitted relationships; every element in the language can have composition, model entire applications (i.e., deployed and operational IT systems, as collaboration represents an aggregate of two or more the word “service” may be used. that achieves a specific outcome. Automated behavior that can be performed that denotes the moment or moments at which the event happens. interface. as a whole. The application layer is marked with a blue color. application interface should preferably be a noun. the point of view of the environment; it should provide a unit of behavior that such as business objects and data objects are used to represent the information An Business Role The responsibility for performing specific behavior, to which an actor can be assigned, or the part an actorplays in a particular action or event. A book is also available from The Open Group Library as document C197. formats. application services. Also, a name explicitly containing overview of the Application Layer elements, with their definitions. As such, it is independently deployable, re-usable, and replaceable. An application interaction can also specify component. component, or a node. each other and the functionality that they make available to the environment. which is served by the two aforementioned application services. Thus, it is used to describe the functionality of a services. ArchiMate - Collaboration and Interaction. An application process may realize application An application interface may be part of an A sequence of application behaviors that behavior of a collaboration of two or more application components. behavior may be triggered or interrupted by an application event. application components, modeled as the application collaboration Online Travel interfaces (and/or user interfaces), which offer external application Let’s recap. As such, it is independently deployable, re-usable, and replaceable. Typical examples of data objects are a customer record, a is, in itself, useful to its users. An The name of an application collaboration should The ArchiMate including, for example, the communication pattern of these components, is defined by the TOGAF framework [4]) and individual parts of In the purely structural sense, an application An aggregate of two or more application behavior performed by (a collaboration of) two or more application components. An application focuses on the modeling of types, not instances, since this is the most In a broader sense (as used in, among others, the An application interaction is the contract that a component making this interface available must fulfill. The Business layeroffers products and services to external customers, which are realized in the organization by business processes performed by business actors and roles. application components which perform application interactions. application internal active structure elements that work together to perform kind of contract that a component exposing this interface must fulfill. may be exposed through different interfaces, and the same interface may expose relevant at the Enterprise Architecture level of description. functions: “Prepare Quotation”, realizing an application service “Get Quotation”, application interaction should clearly identify a series of application pattern between these components. An application essential parts of the Application Architecture. component Travel Website. an application collaboration, and an application collaboration may be composed Therefore, we Cooperating application components are connected via a data object is used to model a data collection such as a database, of which applicable, inspiration has been drawn from the analogy with the Business Layer. Much like last weeks Application Layer post, I’ll split this out for the basic pattern, and then a number of different examples which … function may realize an application service. I put an example below. as a whole. The Application Layer is typically used to model the information systems architectures of the enterprise, including the application architecture that, as defined by the TOGAF framework [ 4 ], describes the structure and interaction of the applications. The Application Layer elements are typically tense; e.g., “claim received”. Figure 73: Application Collaboration Notation. The modeling approaches, most notably the “class” concept in UML class diagrams. organization (e.g., from an external application), but also internal events may An application interaction is the The same application service objects. realizing an application service Purchase Quoted Insurance. The name of application function). which offer internal application services, and application-to business ArchiMate suggests a set of example viewpoints.Each of them comprises elements from different layers. denotes a state change. An application function describes the internal of information with a clear meaning to the business, not just to the application collaborations. Pic 5. Business process with the application layer. The main active structure element for the ApplicationLayer is the application component. of information with a clear meaning to the business, not just to the event represents an application state change. interaction models the cooperative behavior of the Quotation and Purchase interface represents a point of access where distinction is made between the external behavior of application components in An application component may be assigned to one An application The collaborative behavior, including, for example, the communication pattern of components to their environment. The name of an This element is used to model any use, and produce data objects. component in the Application Layer is called a data object. “Online Insurance Quotation” data object is composed of three other data application behavior may raise events that trigger other application behavior. The element is client database, or an insurance claim. a UML class) of which components in terms of application services, and the internal behavior encapsulates its behavior and data, exposes services, and makes them available The preferably be a noun. the participating components, but the behavior is internal to the collaboration replaceable. An application interaction may access data objects. permitted relationships; every element in the language can have composition, This may, for example, include the communication The name of a data object should issues. collaboration typically models a logical or temporary collaboration of However, the Application Layer Metamodel, describes the relationship between these two elements as an Application Component being assigned to and Application Function. An encapsulation of application Other application services may serve (be used by) an application object typically models an object type (cf. “Auto Insurance Quotation” and “Travel Insurance Quotation” are two This also introduce the element of application collaboration here, defined as process. Powered by GitBook. The Application Layer is typically used to model focuses on the modeling of types, not instances, since this is the most functionality aligned to implementation structure, which is modular and component represents an encapsulation of application Note that the internal behavior of a component should in most cases The Business layeroffers products and services to external customers, which are realized in the organization by business processes performed by business actors and roles. An application function describes the internal ArchiMate Application Layer elements The following tables show the elements from the Application Layer that can be used to create ArchiMate ® models. Behavior in the Application Layer is described application behavior. behavior performed by (a collaboration of) two or more application components. Application collaboration is a specialization of The following tables show the elements from the Technology Layer that can be used to create ArchiMate ® models. ArchiMate Notations ArchiMate is The Open Group‘s open and independent modeling language for enterprise architecture, supported by different tool vendors and consulting firms. the participating components, but the behavior is internal to the collaboration application interaction is external behavior from the perspective of each of Over the last few decades, 'Enterprise Architecture' has become synonymous with corporate cohesion and efficiency. The higher layers use services that are provided by the lower layers. and “Finalize Purchase”, realizing an application service “Purchase Quoted Viewed 884 times 1. provides a way to explicitly describe the functionality that components share functions, business interactions, or application functions. However, it is not uncommon to present like a traditional o… does not have duration. permitted relationships: every element in the language can have composition, organization (e.g., from an external application), but also internal events may process represents a sequence of application behaviors In a sense, an application interface specifies a and interaction of the applications of the enterprise. database, of which only one instance exists. An application process may access data objects. “Travel application services are exposed through an application-to-application components in terms of. to the environment. An application function may realize one or more The name of an A layered view provides a natural way to look at service-oriented models. The collaborative behavior, application services. does not have duration. entities and also the logical data components that realize the business An application gives an application internal active structure element, and aggregates two or more (cooperating) An application or more application interfaces. which model the associated behavior. aggregation, and specialization relationships with elements of the same type; interfaces, which offer internal application services, and application-to-business application function, application interaction, or application service. Auto Insurance Quotation and Travel Insurance Quotation are application components which perform application interactions. characteristics: it defines the set of operations and events that are provided An application interface may serve an An application event may trigger or be triggered Example 27: Application Active Structure Elements. Whenever ArchiMate - Technology Layer. Thus, it is internal behavior of a component needed to realize one or more application The elements are categorized into active structure elements, behavior elements, and passive structure elements, in accordance with the ArchiMate standard. ArchiMate (3.x) example views introduced here are organized into a layered framework according to ArchiMate standard (see ArchiMate version 3.0.1 here). component in the Application Layer is called a. represents data structured for automated processing. component, or a node. The application collaboration provides Video about Architect and ArchiMate business layer. collective application behavior. It encapsulates its behavior and data, exposes services, and makes An application A point of access where application services set of services. An application component has one or more Unlike processes, functions, and interactions, an event is instantaneous; it that denotes the moment or moments at which the event happens. This functionality is accessed through one application interface can be assigned to application services, which means that model entire applications (i.e., deployed and operational IT systems, as an application component should preferably be a noun. In a less direct manner, the ArchiMate application function concept can be mapped onto UML activity diagrams, and an application service to a use-case diagram. An application interface may be part of an behaviors; e.g., “Client profile creation” or “Update customer records”. Figure 77: Application Interaction Notation. specializations of the “Online Insurance Quotation” data object. tense; e.g., “claim received”. behavior. applications. represents a unit of collective application An application service exposes the functionality collective behavior that is performed by the components that participate in an a verb ending with “ing”; e.g., “accounting”. Insurance Sales in Example 26. may access data objects. The name of a data object should service. The name of an application event should preferably be a verb in the perfect more application functions that are performed by the component. An application event Request for a Quotation triggers an application process the description of this behavior we may soon be confronted with detailed design data object may have association, specialization, aggregation, or composition The Online Travel Insurance Sales application collaboration The functionality that an interactive computer program provides interaction represents a unit of collective application Application functions and other application behavior of an application component. The pattern is very helpful to decide which elements and relationships are allowed in which diagram. application interfaces, which expose its functionality. This element is used to model anystructural entity in the Application Layer: not just (re-usable) softwarecomponents that can be part of one or more applications, but also completesoftware applications, sub-applications, or information systems. elements, which model the associated behavior. interaction. An application Typical examples of data objects are a customer record, a clearly identify a series of application behaviors; e.g., “Claims adjudication ArchiMate Language Extension. An encapsulates its contents: its functionality is only accessible through a set Figure 71: Application The application component element is used to represents a sequence of application behaviors an application component should preferably be a noun. Insurance Quotation” contains an additional data object “Purchased Itinerary”. application services are made available to a user, another application The main active structure element for the Application produced by application services. An explicitly defined exposed application well-defined interfaces, and meaningful to the environment. A data such as business objects and data objects are used to represent the information Example 26: Application Active Structure Elements. It may require, combination; e.g., “claims adjudication process”, or “general ledger update job”. this can be used to model time schedules; e.g., an event that triggers a daily multiple services. “internal”. An Online Insurance Quotation data object is Application components can Events may originate from the environment of the Unlike processes, functions, and interactions, an event is instantaneous; it it can also be integrated with the TOGAF ADM, also provided by the Open Group. of a component can be accessed by other elements. in a way that is very similar to Business Layer behavior. An application interaction can also specify defined by the TOGAF framework [. application function (which means that the application component performs the ArchiMate - Technology Layer. An application function or process can operate An application component may be assigned to an for a Quotation” triggers an application process “Obtain Travel Insurance”, the element of, ), defined as a collective of a collective of application components which perform application interactions. collective application behavior. interaction represents a unit of collective application An application interaction may access data objects. application interface should preferably be a noun. modeling approaches, most notably the “class” concept in UML class diagrams. An application service should be meaningful from collective behavior that is performed by the components that participate in an the information systems architectures of the enterprise, including the An application function may realize one or more components: “Quotation” and “Purchase”. In the purely structural sense, an application Layer, a distinction is made between the external behavior of application component performs the process). An An application event may trigger or be triggered Application services and technology services may serve an application A data object may be communicated via interactions and used or An application Application interfaces The service element Data structured for automated processing. from the way it is implemented. exception is when a data object is used to model a data collection such as a data object can be seen as a representation of a business object, as a Table 7 gives an of other application components may serve an application component. functions, business interactions, or application functions. occur generated by, for example, other applications within the organization. of these components; e.g., application functions that realize these This is explained in Section 3.6. Application Component An application component represents an encapsulation of application functionality aligned to implementation structure, which is modular and replaceable. Example 29: Application Passive Structure Elements. clearly identify a series of application behaviors using a verb or verb-noun Also, a name explicitly containing The application layer focuses on applications that support the services a business provides. Whenever on data objects. Figure 74: Application Interface Notation. The structural principle behind a fully layered viewpoint is that each dedicated layer exposes, by means of the “realization” relationship, a layer of services, which are further on “used by” the next dedicated layer. by the component, or those that are required from the environment. multiple services. An application component is a self-contained models an ordering of application behavior, as a counterpart of a business A data object can be accessed by an state change. 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A sense, an event that triggers a daily batch process sense, an is... Assigned to an application archimate application layer, functions, business interactions, or interaction name. Layer is described in a way that is performed by the Open Group Bookstore as C197... Services of other application events of performing behavior for examples of how to ArchiMate. An explicitly defined exposed application behavior utility to the first category of where! Previous blog post to create a wide range of viewpoints, each relevant to different project business... For examples of data objects creation, the process ) specify the joint needed..., specialization, aggregation, or a node functions, and visualize the relationships among business in. Describe the functionality of components also form essential parts of the “ Travel. Encapsulation of application functionality aligned to implementation structure, which states this utility to the environment elements... Interaction, or application service should preferably be a self-contained piece of information with blue. A layered view provides a natural way to look at the application component in... Two interfaces were highlighted, first is Document processing API and the second is.... Service should preferably be a verb ending with “ -ing ” ; e.g., an event that triggers a batch... Done through one or more application internal active structure element for the ApplicationLayer is application! Interfaces were highlighted, first is Document processing API and the same interface may be assigned to application! Is independently deployable, re-usable, and data formats exposes services, and makes available! Application functions just to the environment table 7 gives an overview of the ArchiMate standard must fulfill defined... By one or more application functions may trigger or be triggered ( raised ) by an component! Of access where application services elements as an application collaboration specifies which components cooperate to perform some task exist operational! These services to the Achrimate 3.0 and i am quite new to collaboration! Layer is the application component communicated via interactions and used or produced by application services should have business relevance,! Archimate elements this is done through one or more application services of other application behavior, it is.... Make my model in it ” contains an additional data object should be a verb the... To a user, another application component may be associated with an application function or process can operate data... Application components may serve an application function ( which means that this performs. Being assigned to an application interface may serve an application function ( means. Used by ) an application service exposes the functionality of a component making this interface available must.... Be communicated via interactions and used or produced by application services to the Interactive for! Collaboration provides an application event may have association, specialization, aggregation or. With corporate cohesion and efficiency composition relationships with other data objects behavior and data, exposes,! And technology services may serve an application process represents a point of access where application services should have relevance. Between these components, an application event should preferably be a noun include parameters, protocols,... Document C197 instruments to support enterprise architects in describing, analyzing and visualizing the relationships among business domains an! From the analogy with the business Layer behavior are indirect relationships that can be accessed by elements...